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Re: Historial photo by Albert Roth of American chestnut.

Image

I have no clue where I found this on the web, last spring, but the file name is 30 Big Chestnut.jpg.
by Lucas
Mon Aug 11, 2014 2:27 pm
 
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New analysis links tree height to climate

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/08/140814191343.htm


This Eucalyptus regnans, growing west of Melbourne, Australia, is more than 300 feet tall. E regnans are somewhat shorter than giant sequoias, but are still the tallest flowering plants in the world.
Credit: Composite photo by Thomas Givnish
[Click to enlarge image]
What limits the height of trees? Is it the fraction of their photosynthetic energy they devote to productive new leaves? Or is it their ability to hoist water hundreds of feet into the air, supplying the green, solar-powered sugar factories in those leaves?


Both factors -- resource allocation and hydraulic limitation -- might play a role, and a scientific debate has arisen as to which factor (or what combination) actually sets maximum tree height, and how their relative importance varies in different parts of the world.
In research to be published in the journal Ecology -- and currently posted online as a preprint -- Thomas Givnish, a professor of botany at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, attempts to resolve this debate by studying how tree height, resource allocation and physiology vary with climate in Victoria state, located in southeastern Australia. There, Eucalyptus species exhibit almost the entire global range in height among flowering trees, from 4 feet to more than 300 feet.
"Since Galileo's time," Givnish says, "people have wondered what determines maximum tree height: 'Where are the tallest trees, and why are they so tall?' Our study talks about the kind of constraints that could limit maximum tree height, and how those constraints and maximum height vary with climate."
One of the species under study, Eucalyptus regnans -- called mountain ash in Australia, but distinct from the smaller and unrelated mountain ash found in the U.S. -- is the tallest flowering tree in the world. In Tasmania, an especially rainy part of southern Australia, the tallest living E. regnans is 330 feet tall. (The tallest tree in the world is a coastal redwood in northern California that soars 380 feet above the ground.)
Southern Victoria, Tasmania and northern California all share high rainfall, high humidity and low evaporation rates, underlining the importance of moisture supply to ultra-tall trees. But the new study by Givnish, Graham Farquhar of the Australian National University and others shows that rainfall alone cannot explain maximum tree height.
A second factor, evaporative demand, helps determine how far a given amount of rainfall will go toward meeting a tree's demands. Warm, dry and sunny conditions cause faster evaporation from leaves, and Givnish and his colleagues found a tight relationship between maximum tree height in old stands in Australia and the ratio of annual rainfall to evaporation. As that ratio increased, so did maximum tree height.
Other factors -- like soil fertility, the frequency of wildfires and length of the growing season -- also affect tree height. Tall, fast-growing trees access more sunlight and can capture more energy through photosynthesis. They are more obvious to pollinators, and have potential to outcompete other species.
"Infrastructure" -- things like wood and roots that are essential to growth but do not contribute to the production of energy through photosynthesis -- affect resource allocation, and can explain the importance of the ratio of moisture supply to evaporative demand.
"In moist areas, trees can allocate less to building roots," Givnish says. "Other things being equal, having lower overhead should allow them to achieve greater height.
"And plants in moist areas can achieve higher rates of photosynthesis, because they can open the stomata on their leaves that exchange gases with the atmosphere. When these trees intake more carbon dioxide, they can achieve greater height before their overhead exceeds their photosynthetic income."
The constraints on tree height imposed by resource allocation and hydraulics should both increase in drier areas. But Givnish and his team wanted to know the importance of each constraint.
The scientists examined the issue by measuring the isotopic composition of carbon in the wood along the intense rainfall gradient in their study zone. If hydraulic limitation alone were to set maximum tree height, the carbon isotope composition should not vary because all trees should grow up to the point at which hydraulics retards photosynthesis. The isotopic composition should also remain stable if resource allocation alone sets maximum height, because resource allocation does not directly affect the stomata.
But if both factors limit tree height, the heavier carbon isotopes should accumulate in moister areas where faster photosynthesis (enhanced by wide-open stomata) can balance the costs of building more wood in taller trees. Givnish, Farquhar and their colleagues found exactly that, implying that hydraulic limitation more strongly constrains maximum tree height under drier conditions, while resource allocation more strongly constrains height under moist conditions.
Most studies of tree height have focused on finding the tallest trees and explaining why they live where they do, Givnish says. "This study was the first to ask, 'How does the maximum tree height vary with the environment, and why?'"
Story Source:
The above story is based on materials provided by University of Wisconsin-Madison. The original article was written by David Tenenbaum. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.
Journal Reference:
Thomas J. Givnish, Suen Chin Wong, Hilary Stuart-Williams, Meisha Holloway-Phillips, Graham D. Farquhar. Determinants of maximum tree height inEucalyptusspecies along a rainfall gradient in Victoria, Australia. Ecology, 2014; 140508070634001 DOI: 10.1890/14-0240.1
by Lucas
Mon Aug 18, 2014 12:35 pm
 
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World's primary forests on the brink with map

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/enhanced/figures/doi/10.1111/conl.12120/#figure-viewer-conl12120-fig-0001

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/enhanced/doi/10.1111/conl.12120/

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/08/140818112937.htm

August 18, 2014
An international team of conservationist scientists and practitioners has published new research showing the precarious state of the world's primary forests.


The global analysis and map are featured in a paper appearing in the journal Conservation Letters and reveals that only five percent of the world's pre-agricultural primary forest cover is now found in protected areas.
Led by Professor Brendan Mackey, Director of the Climate Change Response Program at Griffith University in Queensland, Australia, the authors are experts in forest ecology, conservation biology, international policy and practical forest conservation issues.
Representing organizations such as the US-based Wildlife Conservation Society, the Zoological Society of London, the Geos Institute and Australian National University, they conclude that primary forest protection is the joint responsibility of developed as well as developing countries and is a matter of global concern.
Primary forests -- largely ignored by policy makers and under increasing land use threats -- are forests where there are no visible indications of human activities, especially industrial-scale land use, and ecological processes have not been significantly disrupted.
These forests are home to an extraordinary richness of biodiversity, with up to 57 percent of all tropical forest species dependent on primary forest habitat and the ecological processes they provide.
The analysis shows that almost 98 per cent of primary forest is found within 25 countries, with around half of that located in five developed countries: the U.S., Canada, Russia, Australia and New Zealand.
Professor Mackey warns that industrial logging, mining and agriculture gravely threaten primary forests, and those outside of protected areas are especially vulnerable.
He adds that policies are urgently needed to reduce pressure to open up primary forests for industrial land use.
"International negotiations are failing to halt the loss of the world's most important primary forests," says Professor Mackey. "In the absence of specific policies for primary forest protection in biodiversity and climate change treaties, their unique biodiversity values and ecosystem services will continue to be lost in both developed and developing countries."
Co-author James Watson, of the Wildlife Conservation Society, says: "Primary forests are a matter of significant conservation concern. Most forest-endemic biodiversity needs primary forest for their long-term persistence and large intact forest landscapes are under increasingly pressure from incompatible land use."
The authors identify four new actions that would provide a solid policy foundation for key international negotiations, including forest-related multilateral agreements to help ensure primary forests persist into the 21st century:
1 Recognize primary forests as a matter of global concern within international negotiations and not just as a problem in developing nations;
2 Incorporate primary forests into environmental accounting, including the special contributions of their ecosystem services (including freshwater and watershed services), and use a science-based definition to distinguish primary forests;
3 Prioritize the principle of avoided loss -- emphasize policies that seek to avoid any further biodiversity loss and emissions from primary forest deforestation and degradation;
4 Universally accept the important role of indigenous and community conserved areas -- governments could use primary forest protection as a mechanism within multilateral environmental agreements to support sustainable livelihoods for the extensive populations of forest-dwelling peoples, especially traditional peoples, in developed and developing countries.
by Lucas
Thu Aug 21, 2014 10:37 am
 
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Groot

http://www.mast-producing-trees.org/2014/08/plantatreeforgroot-faq/

http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/heat-vision/official-dancing-groot-is-breakout-727123

http://www.zimbio.com/Beyond+the+Box+Office/articles/Zdq9TfD08i_/Vin+Diesel+Wants+Plant+Tree+Groot

https://www.google.ca/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#q=groot&tbm=nws

Who would have guessed a comic book movie would raise tree awareness although it is likely to fade fast.
by Lucas
Wed Sep 03, 2014 2:28 pm
 
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a-great-white-oak indeed

http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-EMymt4kHOLw/VCCxY7HLALI/AAAAAAAApk0/3QVSYgnaG-E/s1600/big-white-oak.jpg

http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-RifQKtVpcNQ/VCDB66nD0tI/AAAAAAAAplg/O1cTAwkvWJ0/s1600/tree-mom.JPG

http://terriermandotcom.blogspot.ca/2014/09/a-great-white-oak.html
by Lucas
Tue Sep 23, 2014 2:50 pm
 
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Gross (Samuel) Memorial Woods potential?

http://jimmccormac.blogspot.ca/2010/11/quick-stroll-through-gross-woods.html


http://naturepreserves.ohiodnr.gov/grossmemorialwoods

Gross (Samuel) Memorial Woods State Nature Preserve
"This 49 acre preserve was made possible by a gift of the heirs of Samuel Gross to the Division of Natural Areas and Preserves via the Ohio Chapter of The Nature Conservancy in 1980. Although small in size, Gross Woods is one of the least disturbed old-growth woods in west-central Ohio and one of the few mixed-species swamp forests remaining in this part of the state.

The woods are characterized by a diversity of tree species, with no one type being dominant. Large bur oaks and basswood occur in the wettest areas, with shagbark hickory, white and red oaks, black walnut, beech and sugar maple on slightly drier ground. The rare pumpkin ash is also present here."


I don't see a mention of this preserve in a search. Maybe it has potential.
by Lucas
Sun Oct 05, 2014 8:50 pm
 
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Big Move

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http://www.npr.org/2014/10/26/358965309/lifted-on-giant-inner-tubes-an-old-tree-moves-in-michigan
by Lucas
Tue Oct 28, 2014 8:22 pm
 
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Re: American Chestnut -- Once in a lifetime

I had the immense pleasure of seeing three mature American Chestnuts this week. I had no idea there even was a large chestnut anywhere near the northeast corner of this country.



A Great find!

https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/-IC_9ry1AgGY/VFO2n4fyFxI/AAAAAAAAAbg/-LmqoosYBJw/s720/DSC05682.JPG

https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/-FduVzk_paGo/VFO2szaOsXI/AAAAAAAAAbo/JTZ2AcbhS8s/s720/DSC05652.JPG

https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-uED35qMRZvw/VFO2lsjJq3I/AAAAAAAAAbY/80GxxiZtCFk/s720/DSC05666.JPG

I checked out these 3 different ones this week.

The oldest is about 150 years old.
by Lucas
Fri Oct 31, 2014 12:22 pm
 
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Re: Historial photo by Albert Roth of American chestnut.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/04/PSM_V84_D567_Chestnut_tree%2C_near_the_trail_of_buck_spring_lodge.jpg

Fig. 4. Chestnut Tree, near the Trail to Buck Spring Lodge, Pisgah Forest, North Carolina. This tree measured eighteen feet in circumference. Photograph supplied by the United States Forest Service. .

http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Popular_Science_Monthly/Volume_84/June_1914/The_Future_of_the_Chestnut_Tree_in_North_America

Nice one
by Lucas
Thu Nov 27, 2014 8:06 pm
 
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Re: Gross Memorial Woods SNP (Ohio)

Rand wrote:
Image



A Great White, indeed!
by Lucas
Fri Dec 05, 2014 7:23 pm
 
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a good summary?

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/ForestCarbon/images/canopy_height_global_homolosine.png

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/ForestCarbon/

The result was a map showing the world’s tallest forests clustered in the Pacific Northwest of North America and in portions of Southeast Asia, with shorter forests covering broad swaths across Canada and Eurasia. The tallest tree canopies are the temperate conifer forests—full of Douglas fir, western hemlock, redwood, and sequoia—that often grow taller than 40 meters (131 feet). Boreal forests of spruce, fir, pine, and larch usually reach less than 20 meters (66 feet) into the sky. In the middle are the temperate, broadleaf forests of Europe and the United States and the undisturbed tropical rain forests, which both average 25 meters (82 feet) tall.
by Lucas
Mon Jan 05, 2015 9:55 pm
 
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Hello people, goodbye soil: Humans erode soil 100 times fast

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/01/150107150740.htm


Hello people, goodbye soil: Humans erode soil 100 times faster than nature
by Lucas
Mon Jan 12, 2015 7:41 pm
 
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neat pix and a good site

http://www.salicicola.com/servlet/GetImage?id=20050517canon0003s

http://www.salicicola.com/servlet/GetImage?id=20070411canon0024s

http://www.salicicola.com/photos/gallery/view/1444/1444

This site has some neat pix like these of white oaks dealing with rocks. Good comments too.
by Lucas
Tue Oct 07, 2014 2:24 pm
 
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Finding really 'old' growth

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/01/150115142231.htm

Finding really 'old' growth

An international team led by the University of Washington has discovered a way to determine the tree cover and density of trees, shrubs and bushes in locations over time based on clues in the cells of plant fossils preserved in rocks and soil.

"The significance of this work cannot be overstated," said co-author Strömberg. "Vegetation structure links all aspects of modern ecosystems, from soil moisture to primary productivity to global climate. Using this method, we can finally quantify in detail how Earth's plant and animal communities have responded to climate change over millions of years, which is vital for forecasting how ecosystems will change under predicted future climate scenarios."


The researchers decided to check their hypothesis that fossilized cells could tell a more complete story of vegetation structure by testing it in a modern setting: Costa Rica.



neat stuff
by Lucas
Fri Jan 16, 2015 5:25 pm
 
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Re: Olive tree of Vouves

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/03/150302141241.htm

Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), long-known for its heart health benefits, has now been identified for its rapid destruction of cancer cells. While scientists have proven that the oleocanthal compound found in EVOO causes cell death in cancer cells, they have been unable to provide an explanation for this phenomenon until now. Paul Breslin, David Foster, and Onica LeGendre offer answers in their paper, published in Molecular & Cellular Oncology.

In their recent study, the researchers discovered that the key to understanding the toxic effect of oleocantha in cancerous cells lies in its reaction with the lysosomes of the cell, where the cells store waste: the oleocantha ruptures the cancer cell lysosomes causing cell death within 30 minutes to an hour while leaving un-cancerous cells unharmed. This suggests that the lysosomal membranes of cancerous cells are weaker than those of uncancerous cells. Because of oleocantha's targeted damage to cancer cells, it may prove an ideal option for therapeutic cancer treatment. Paul Breslin, co-author of the study, said "The mechanism of killing cancer cells and sparing healthy cells, lysosomal membrane permeabilization, has been hypothesized as a possible mechanism of effectively killing cancer cells and sparing healthy tissues but has never been realized before. Our realization of this makes this paper of particular therapeutic interest for cancer treatment."

The study's focus on the effect of oleocantha on cancerous and un-cancerous cells leads to larger implications about the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet, which is rich in EVOO. Breslin stated, "the Mediterranean diet is known to be associated with a reduced risk of many different kinds of cancer. Whereas the entire diet likely has many benefits, this study points directly to the olive oil phenolic, oleocanthal, as playing an especially important role in these observations. As more people turn to the Mediterranean diet as a healthy life option, oleocanthal is growing in its significance as a key active component of this diet."
by Lucas
Sat Mar 07, 2015 4:37 pm
 
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A Forgotten Old-Growth Woodlot in OH

http://floraofohio.blogspot.ca/2012/12/ ... odlot.html

FYI Possible potential here.

I don't know if Gibson is on the site o rif this has been mentioned before.The search engine is rather generic.
by Lucas
Thu Apr 16, 2015 4:27 pm
 
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Re: A Gnarly Old White Oak

Image

Image

scale pic
by Lucas
Mon Apr 20, 2015 10:16 pm
 
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cron